UKUTYA KWISITYA SAKHO - INGABA KUKUTYA OKUKULUNGELEYO?

UKUTYA KWISITYA SAKHO - INGABA KUKUTYA OKUKULUNGELEYO?

Masivuye Mahleba | 25 July 2019


Abantu baseMzantsi Afrika bafumana izakhamzimba ezithile ngokwegqithisileyo ukanti ezinye izakhamzimba bazifumana kancinci.

UMzantsi Afrika uyakuthanda ukutya. Sichitha iiyure zamaxesha sitshisa inyama nezihlobo nabahlobo, sisasaze lomifanekiso kumakhasi onxibelelwano, side singene kwiincoko zengxoxompikiswano, siqhayiselane ngezona ndawo zine zimnandi nangakumbi ii-bunny chow kwidolophu zethu. Kodwa, ingaba izakhamzimba zikhona ngokwaneleyo na kwizitya zethu?

Uphengululo olwenziwe ngenkxaso-mali esuka kwindibanisela yokhuseleko-kutya olubalaseleyo yamaziko i-DST kunye ne-NRF luqwalesele ukutya okutyiwayo eMzantsi Afrika kwingxelo zophandonzulu ezisixhenxe eziqhutywe ukusukela ngonyaka ka-2000 ukuya kunyaka ka-2015. Oluphengululo lujongiswe ekuqondisiseni esikutyayo, nasekuqondisiseni oko kunqongopheleyo kwesikutyayo. Oluphengululo lwengxelo zophandonzulu lujonge kuphela kwilali nedolophu zaseMntlantshona, idolophu zaseKapa, ilali nedolophu zaseFreystata, ilali nedolophu zase-Vaal kunye nezaKwazulu-Natal.

Izakhi zokutya okusempilweni.

Izakhamzimba ezikhulu

Amafutha, iproteyni nekhabhohaydreyts (izakhamzimba ezikhulu) zinikeza umzimba amandla. Abantu abathile bazitya ngokwegqithiseleyo ezinye zezizakhamzimba ukanti abanye abazifumani ngokwemilinganiselo eyaneleyo.

Xakuthelekiswa amaqondo emilinganiselo yezakhamzimba ezinika amandla ezityiwa ngamadoda, kunye namaqondo ezizakhamzimba ezityiwa ngabasetyhini eMzantsi Afrika kusoloko kufumaniseka ukuba amadoda kunye nabasetyhini kweli bafumana amaqondo asezantsi komlinganiselo, ngaphandle kwaseMntlantshona naKwaZulu-Natal.

Oku kuthetha into yokuba ipesenti enkulu yamadoda nabasetyhini itya kancinci kunomlinganiselo osisidingo. Ngokwamawaka ekhilojoules (kJ) amadoda atya umlinganiselelo osukela kuma-6793 ukuya kuma-15 485, abasetyhini bona bafumane ukusukela ku-6 107 ukuya ku-12 302.

Xakujongwa jikelele kufumaniseka ukuba iilali zifumana ezizakha mzimba kancinci kunedolophu.

Abahlali basezilalini batya ipesenti zamafutha, neproteyni eziphantsi kunabasezidolophini. Kodwa ukutyiwa kwesekile eyongezelelweyo kubobonke abathabathe inkxaxheba koluphando bekuliqondo elingaphezulu komlinganiselo wegrem ezingama-250, okanye ngaphezu kwepesenti ezilishumi ngokomlinganiselo wombutho wempilo wehlabathi (WHO).

Abasetyhini batya i-fibre encinci kunomlingineselo wakwa-RDA wegrem zama-25, ukanti amadoda atya i-fibre encinci kunomlinganiselo wakwa-RDA wegrem zama-38 ngaphandle koMntlantshona naKwazulu-Natal apho abantu batya ngaphezulu kwamaqondo omlinganiselelo.

Izakhamzimba ezincinci.

Ezi zizakhamzimba ezifana nevitamin kunye neminerals ezidingwa ngumzimba ukuze uhlale usempilweni. Amaqondo okutyiwa kweminerali ye-Calcium, nawokutyiwa kwe-vitamin-D angaphantsi komlinganiselelo. Amadoda adinga i-microgrem (µg) ezingange-7.7, abasetyhini badinga ukusuka kwi-microgrem ezingange-0.7 ukuya kwezili-9.0. Abantu basezilalini, njengoko bekulindelekile bazifumana kancinci ezizakhamzimba.

Singathi ke; ukubakhona okanye ukungabikho kokutya okuthile kwizitya zethu kukholelela kunqunguphalo luni na kwisondlo sethu?

Esikutyayo, neziphumo emizimbeni yethu.

Izidlo ezityiwa kakhulu ziquka iswekile eyongezelelweyo; iti; ikofu; ipapa yombona; isonka; ubisi olungacwengwanga; amaqanda; ibhotolo/amafutha; iitapile; iziqhamo; imifino; istock ne-rice. Inyama ebomvu kokunye kokutya okuthengwa ngexabiso eliphezulu eMzanstsi Afrika, yiyolonto abantu abahluphekayo bebonakala bekhetha ukuyifumana kwinyama yenkukhu iproteyni.

Nangona ukutyiwa kobisi olungacwengwanga kuseqondweni eliphezulu, iqondo eliphantsi leminerali ye-Calcium kwimizimba yabantu kunokwenzeka ukuba lithetha ukuba iqondo lokutyiwa kobisi lusengasezantsi komlinganiselo obekiweyo. Oku kungadlala inxaxheba enkulu kumaqondo aphezulu esigulo soxinzelelo lwemithambo yegazi kuluntu lwesizwe saseMzantsi Afrika.

Ukunqaba kwemifino neziqhamo.

Abemi baseMzantsi Afrika bayitya kancinci imifino neziqhamo. Amaqondo omlinganiselo obekiweyo zigrem zama-400 ngosuku, kwaye kufumiseke ukuba bonke abathathe inxaxheba koluphandonzulu batya umlinganiselo ozigren zama-150 ngosuku.

Ukutyiwa kwesitatshi ngokugqithisileyo.

Iqondo eliphezulu lokutyiwa kokutya kwamaxa onke, isonka nombona, kungakhuthazwa kukufikeleleka kokukutya ngenxa yokuba kuxhaswa ngurhulumente kwaye akubhatalelwa rhafu yongezelelweyo. Ukutya kwamaxa onke kuthengwa ngamaxabiso aphantsi ngokweqondo ngalinye lamandla afumaneka ekutyeni kunemveliso ezityiwayo ezifumaneka kwimfuyo, kwiziqhamo, kunye nemifino, kengoko oku kukona kutya kutyiwa kakhulu kwindawo zabantu abahluphekayo.

Emakhayeni iswekile, amafutha ixesha elininzi aye agalelwe ngethuba lokuphekwa kokutya ukongeza incasa yokutya kwamaxa onke.

Ukutyiwa ngaphaya komlinganiselo kokutya kwamaxa onke ukuqinisiweyo, amafutha esondlo, neswekile eyongezelelweyo, zibeka abemi baseMzantsi Afrika ebungozini besigulo sokutyeba, nokuhluma kwezigulo ezingathethekiyo, lona ingumcelimngeni wezempilo osele ubonwa kwelilizwe.

Iminerali ye-Sodium, ngokwegqithiseleyo.

Ngokwengxelo-ngengxelo ezenziwe eMzantsi Afrika zophandonzulu ubalo manana luthi inxaxheba yesonka iphakathi kwepesenti ezi-5 nezingama-35 ekutyiweni kweminerali ye-Sodium xa kujongwa intlanga ngentlanga zabantu.

Ityiwa iyongezelwa ekutyeni xakuphekwa, etafileni xakutyiwa, kunye nakwimizimveliso xakuyilwa ukutya. Oku kungadlala indima engangepesenti ezingama-40 xakujongwa amaqondo okutyiwa kweminerali ye-Sodium.

Oku kuyaxhalabisa njengoko ukutyiwa kwe-Sodium ngeqondo eliphezulu kungabangela ukonyuka koxinzelelo kwimithambo yegazi.

Iziselo zongeza amaqondo eswekile emizimbeni yethu.

Ikofu neti ziziselo ezixhaphakileyo eMzantsi Afrika. Abemi baseMzantsi Afrika baqhele ukusela ikomityi ezimbini ngosuku zekofu okanye iti. Ingxelo yophandonzulu ka-Vorster nabanye (yango-2014) ibonakalise ukuba inani labantu abadala baseMzantsi Afrika abasela iziselo ezifakwe iswekile ye-sucrose sele liphandaphindwe kabini emva kweminyaka emihlanu.

Iziselo ezifakelwe iswekile ye-sucrose zidla ngokuselwa xeshanye nokutya. Oku kungachaphazela ukungenanzulu nokutyhutyha-emzimbeni kwevitamin, neminerali ezithile—--umzekelo imineral ye-iron yesondlo. Kukho ingxelo yophandonzulu ebonakalise ukuba xa usela ikomityi ye-filter ngelixa usitya, ukungenanzulu nokutyhutyha-emzimbeni kwe-iron emzimbeni kuyehla ukusukela kwipesenti ezi-5.88 ukuya kweziyi-1.64, ukanti xa usela ikofu ekhawulezayo usitya okukwehla kuqala kwipesetni ezi-5.88 ukuya kwezi-0.97. Xa ikofu ekhawulezayo isongezwa ngokuphindwe kabini ipesenti yokungenanzulu nokutyhutyha-emzimbeni ye-iron yehla nangakumbi iyofika ku-0.53.

This articles was sourced from the National Research Foundation (NRF) article from the Science Matters April 2019 issue. It has been translated to isiXhosa by Masivuye Mahleba. Masivuye Mahleba is a Science For Ubuntu advocate and holds a BSc in Geology and Chemistry. He is now pursuing his BSc Honours in Chemistry with the Nelson Mandela University.


Facebook
Newsletter